WES Style Guide

Content Guides

13. Canadian Terms

Consult this section when writing for a chiefly Canadian audience.

Foreign-trained, foreigner, foreign-born

Forms of “foreign” have a negative connotation in Canada and should be avoided if possible. See the following suggested alternatives:

  • international
  • from overseas
  • from outside Canada
  • trained or educated abroad
  • trained in [name of country or world region]
  • internationally trained (this expression is commonly used in Canada)
  • expat or expatriate
  • newcomer, new Canadian

(See Appendix I for more guidance on “foreign.”)

Occupational Regulatory Bodies

Occupational Regulatory Bodies have been given regulatory powers by their respective provincial and territorial governments to self-govern occupations, from licensure to maintaining membership and good standing. They regulate or self-govern on behalf of their provincial or territorial governments but are not government entities. Their purpose is to protect public safety. Not all occupations are regulated uniformly across all provinces. About 20 percent of occupations in Canada are regulated. There are three levels of regulation: registration, certification, and licensure. To learn more, go here.

(In the U.S., regulatory agencies are governmental bodies that implement and enforce laws or regulations that have the force of law in the private sector. Regulatory agencies have functions that are quasi-legislative, -executive, and -judicial.)


Settlement services are provided to support the needs of newcomers throughout … four stages [pre-arrival, initial reception, intermediate, long term]. They include an array of programs and supports … to assist [newcomers] with integrating, adapting, and resettling in Canadian society.” (For more about settlement services, see this report.)

Related terms: settlement sector, settlement worker, refugee settlement

Land Acknowledgement

WES uses and participates in a land acknowledgement to recognize the enduring presence and resilience of Indigenous Peoples on Turtle Island. It is also a reminder that we are all accountable to these relationships. This is a first step in our collective progress toward truth and reconciliation.

Whose territory do you reside on? Visit: native-land.ca



WES acknowledges that it is on the traditional territory of many nations, including the Mississaugas of the Credit, the Anishnabeg, the Chippewa, the Haudenosaunee, and the Wendat peoples, that is now home to many diverse First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples.

We also acknowledge that Toronto is covered by Treaty 13 signed with the Mississaugas of the Credit.


For the New York City land acknowledgement, see WES Style and Language Usage 1.9 or Geography 6.7.