Bologna Terms and Definitions
Bologna Process: The ongoing process of working towards the creation
of a European Higher
Education Area (EHEA), to be completed by 2010.
Diploma Supplement: A document attached to a higher-education
degree or diploma that provides a detailed description of the studies
undertaken and successfully completed by the individual named on the original
(European Credit Transfer System): Establishes common procedures
for recognizing studies completed abroad. The main goal of ECTS is to
promote the exchange of academic information among European institutions
of higher education in order to facilitate student mobility.
The term "tuning" emphasizes the notion that universities are
not looking to unify or harmonize their degree programs into a prescribed
set of European curricula, but rather are looking for points of convergence
and common understanding based on diversity and autonomy.
System (two-tiered system): The Bologna Declaration calls for
the adoption of a degree structure comprised of two clearly defined cycles:
undergraduate (bachelors) and graduate (masters and doctorate).
First Stage (bachelor-level degree): A higher education
qualification requiring between 180 and 240 ECTS credits. It normally
takes three to four years of full-time study to complete this degree.
Second Stage (master-level degree): The length of study
programs leading to the master’s degree in Europe still varies considerably
from country to country. However, there seems to be a trend towards a
one-to-two year master’s degree requiring between 90 and 120 ECTS
credits with a minimum requirement of 60 ECTS credits.
Joint Degrees: Degree programs jointly
developed by two or more institutions. These qualifications are still
being developed and are not currently recognized.
Double Degrees: A double degree is two
or more degrees given by two or more higher education institutions for
the same study program.
guide to all ministerial declarations, reports, documents, seminars,
conferences & trends is available from the following websites:
Association of International Educators (EAIE)
Key Players in the Bologna Process
Council of Europe:
and encourages the development of Europe's cultural identity and diversity.
EAIE (European Association
for International Education):
organization whose mission is to actively promote the internationalization
of European higher education, and to meet the needs of international higher
education professionals both in Europe and the rest of the world.
The ENIC Network
provides information on the recognition of foreign diplomas, degrees and
other qualifications, national education systems and opportunities for
studying abroad. NARIC aims at improving academic recognition of diplomas
and periods of study in the Memeber States of the EU, the EEA countries
and the associated countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Cyprus.
ENQA (European Network for
ENQA is a
European network that disseminates a wide range of information in the
field of quality assessment and quality assurance in higher education.
ESIB (National Unions of Students
ESIB is the
umbrella organization of 50 national student union organizations from
37 European countries.
EUA (European University
The main organization
representing European universities and their national rectors' conferences.
EUA's mission is to promote a coherent system of European higher education
and research based on shared values, through active support and guidance
to its members. It also seeks to strengthen the role of the institutions
in the creation of the European Higher Education Area.
Association of Institutions in Higher Education):
interests of colleges and polytechnics in Europe. Organizes and attends
conferences related to this sector and was actively involved in the preparation
of the Berlin Conference.
Joint Quality Initiative:
Joint Quality Initiative is an informal network for quality assurance
and accreditation of bachelor and master programs in Europe. It stems
from the Bologna Declaration (1999) in which European ministers of education
committed themselves, among other things.
UNESCO-CEPES: The European
Centre for Higher Education (Centre Européen pour l'Enseignement
Supérieur) is a decentralized office of the UNESCO Secretariat.
It was established in September 1972 to promote cooperation in higher
education among member states of the Europe region.
Timeline: The Bologna Process
Magna Charta Universitatum
Signed by the Rectors of European Universities in Bologna, Italy. The
agreement outlines the founding principles of what will later become known
as the Bologna Process.
April 1997: Lisbon
Emphasizes mutual recognition of studies, certificates, diplomas and degrees
to promote academic mobility among European countries.
May 1998: The
Calls for the “harmonization of the architecture of the European
Higher Education System” and is signed by education ministers from
France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
June 1999: The
Signed by 29 countries pledging to restructure their higher-education
systems in an effort to create a coherent, compatible and competitive
European Higher Education Area by the year 2010.
March 2001: Salamanca
Over 300 higher-education representatives gather in Salamanca to assess
the role of higher-education institutions in the Bologna Process in preparation
for the Prague Summit of education ministers.
March 2001: Göteborg
In preparation for the Prague summit, representatives of the National
Unions of Students in Europe (ESIB) formally adopt their position
on the Bologna Declaration in Göteborg.
May 2001: Prague
Adds three more countries (Croatia, Cyprus and Turkey) to the Bologna
Declaration, reviews progress made in the Bologna Process, and sets directions
and priorities for the upcoming years.
May 2003: Graz
The European University Association
(EUA) council adopts the Graz Declaration, which emphasizes the central
role universities must play in implementing the Bologna reforms.
September 2003: Berlin
Reviews progress of the Bologna Process and set directions and priorities
for the next stages of the European Higher Education Area. The Berlin
Communiqué of Ministers is signed.
May 2005 : Bergen
Five more countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine)
sign onto the Bologna Process bringing the total number of signatories
to 45. The
Bergen Communiqué of Ministers is signed. The communiqué emphasizes
the need for further progress in international cooperation in quality
May 2007 :
The newly independent nation of Montenegro signs onto the Bologna Process bringing the total number of signatories to 46.
The London Communiqué is signed.
The communiqué emphasizes the need for further progress in promoting student and faculty mobility, employability, and improving the
international recognition of new European degrees.